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FcgiExample

Revision as of 19:24, 22 September 2010 by MichaelLustfield (Talk)

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FastCGI Example

First thing, I recommend keeping all your typical FCGI settings in a single file and importing them.

For example you might have an /etc/nginx/fastcgi.conf (or /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params: installed by default on debian) file that looks like this:

#fastcgi.conf
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;
fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

This allows you to keep your individual FCGI configurations as simple as possible. You may also want to replace $document_root in SCRIPT_FILENAME and DOCUMENT_ROOT with an actual path, the $document_root variable is hardcoded and may not reflect your install (will cause variations on 'script not found' errors, usually)

To use Nginx + Virtual Host + PHP you should ommit the SCRIPT_NAME variable in order for PHP to choose the correct DOCUMENT_ROOT.

Spawning a FastCGI Process

Unlike Apache or Lighttpd, Nginx does not automatically spawn FCGI processes. You must start them separately. In fact, FCGI is a lot like proxying. There's a few ways to start FCGI programs, but luckily PHP5 will auto-spawn as many as you set in the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment variable. So we simply run php -b 127.0.0.1:9000 manually, or create an init script like so:

#!/bin/bash
BIND=127.0.0.1:9000
USER=www-data
PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN=15
PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS=1000

PHP_CGI=/usr/bin/php-cgi
PHP_CGI_NAME=`basename $PHP_CGI`
PHP_CGI_ARGS="- USER=$USER PATH=/usr/bin PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN=$PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS=$PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS $PHP_CGI -b $BIND"
RETVAL=0

start() {
      echo -n "Starting PHP FastCGI: "
      start-stop-daemon --quiet --start --background --chuid "$USER" --exec /usr/bin/env -- $PHP_CGI_ARGS
      RETVAL=$?
      echo "$PHP_CGI_NAME."
}
stop() {
      echo -n "Stopping PHP FastCGI: "
      killall -q -w -u $USER $PHP_CGI
      RETVAL=$?
      echo "$PHP_CGI_NAME."
}

case "$1" in
    start)
      start
  ;;
    stop)
      stop
  ;;
    restart)
      stop
      start
  ;;
    *)
      echo "Usage: php-fastcgi {start|stop|restart}"
      exit 1
  ;;
esac
exit $RETVAL

Save this to /etc/init.d/ (or wherever your init scripts are) as php-fcgi Install the usual way (for this debian init script, it's update-rc.d php-fcgi defaults) and start it.

Connecting Nginx to the running FastCGI Process

Now that the FCGI process is running, we must tell Nginx to proxy requests to it via the FCGI protocol:

location ~ \.php$ {
  include /etc/nginx/fcgi_params; #or whatever you named it
  fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
}

Restart Nginx.

Secure your upload directory!!

Too many example configs fail to secure the "uploads" directory of the application. Remember that if someone can upload a file named xyz.php and the uploads dir is publically accessible then you have given the attacker an easy way to insert PHP onto your site...

So if your app has an upload dir "/images/" then insert if ($uri !~ "^/images/") before fastcgi_pass, as so:

location ~ \.php$ {
  include /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
  if ($uri !~ "^/images/") {
    fastcgi_pass 127.0.0.1:9000;
  }
}